Genotyping is considered to be the process of determining the DNA sequence i.e. the genotype at certain positions within the gene of any individual.
So, in this case, the variations in sequence can be used as markers in association studies and linkage. Not only that, but this process helps in the determination of genes that are relevant to specific diseases or traits.
Identification Of Sequence Variation
Genotyping is mainly used to identify variations at particular positions in the DNA sequence of any biological species from humans to microorganisms. The variation in the genotype occurs naturally which is regarded as the genetic fingerprint of an individual.
So, this can differ from the reference sequence in various ways. Types of variation include the number of gene copies, deletions, insertions, and single-base changes. In this case, the SNPs are considered to be the most common type of sequence variant.
DNA Genotyping Vs. Sequencing
Although, you may hear both of these terms about DNA, sequencing and genotyping refer to diverse techniques.
This particular process helps in the determination of the genetic variants that any individual possesses. Also, there are many diverse methods to perform this technique strategy which depends on the available resources and the variants of interest.
In this case, genotyping chips are considered to be an accurate and efficient method which is helpful to look at diverse variants all at once. However, this does not involve prior identification of the variants of interest.
Sequencing is identified as a method that is used for determining the exact sequence of a definite length of DNA. You can sequence the whole genome, a short piece, or parts of the genome like exome.
The exome is the specific regions of the genome which contain instructions for proteins and RNAs. So, the overall process is dependent on the region or the particular stretch of sequence.
Some DNA varies between individuals, but the regions are constant. Therefore, the sequencing can be used for the identification of variants that may be unique to that person. Also, this technique can be used to genotype someone for known variants.
Which One To Choose?
Commonly, genotyping is used to analyze the DNA. On the other hand, the sequencing technology has not yet progressed to the point where it is feasible to sequence the genome of any person cheaply and quickly.
Also, sequencing will become an attractive option to choose for people with specific needs like undiagnosed medical issues, a generous budget, etc. But, genotypic technologies are considered a cost-effective and efficient way to evaluate genetic variation in individuals.
So, the above-discussed ones are considered to be some of the important differences existing between SNP genotyping and sequencing that one should know about. This particular technique applies to a broad range of the individuals such as microorganisms.
In this context, genotyping may prove to be very helpful in effectively controlling the spreading of pathogens. Often, this area is referred to as forensic microbiology or molecular epidemiology.